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Monday, May 9, 2016

Syria {Masterlist}

Syria {Masterlist}
first posted June 14, 2015
last updates May 20, 2017

A rather impressive amount of research has been done on many episodes and patterns of the Syria conflict at the ACLOS wiki (A Closer Look On Syria), by collecting and analyzing work, reports, and videos by others. So far only select highlights have been brought to this site, with ACLOS links on these crossover subjects given with each post, usually. While not perfect or final, the quantity, quality, and consistency of our results increasingly make these side-lined "pro-regime" analyses much stronger than the pro-opposition versions sold at the time. This is more the shape any reasonable history book will take on the subject. The sharing invites the reader to get ahead of the curve.

The sharing works well when it's two-way. Readers with valuable  info, or relevant opinions, are encouraged to submit it in the comments. Preferably they'll be in a post about just that subject (note - not every subject has a post here, and comments sometimes get a bit random, let's limit that a bit more.) General Syria comments could best go in comments under this masterlist, for example.

See also: all posts tagged Syria

7 Leading Propaganda Claims Addressed
Some of our best work has been in tackling the events in Syria that came closest to triggering outright military intervention to "stop Assad" or get cited the most by those arguing for such moves. This is my top 7 from among these (re-ordered May, 2016). Note: this assembled material makes this post a valuable resource to bookmark, peruse, and share.

Executed police thrown in river, Hama,
August 1 (Rebellion...Hama pt. 1)
1 The Peaceful Protests of 2011 that "Assad" crushed ... this is the primary argument for why "the regime must go" - because it didn't already when some citizens demanded it, and started instead shooting and arresting people, always blaming imaginary armed "terrorists," and some "conspiracy."
* The Peaceful Protests of 2011 {Masterlist} (forthcoming)
* Baniyas The Baniyas Ambush of Syrian Soldiers, April 10, 2011
* Daraa Re-Considering Hamza al-Khatib and the Events of April 29, 2011  Arrested from a peaceful protest and tortured to death? Seriously - that's a question mark at the end.
* Hama Deaths by Shooting: The Rebellion Starts in Hama, part 1
* Hama Robert Ford, Weapons Inspector: The Rebellion Starts in Hama, part 2
* Hama To Kill a Mock-Nightingale: The Rebellion Starts in Hama, part 3
* Hama Crushing the Rebellion at al-Mazarb Bridge: The Rebellion Begins in Hama, part 4
* Jisr al-Shughour: Peaceful Protests in Jisr al-Shughour (forthcoming) (See Harmoush defector profile)

2) Chemical Weapons Allegations, Sarin to Chlorine to Sarin Again
* 2.A Idlib Chemical Massacre, 4-4-2017: Alleged sarin attack in Khan Sheikhoun said to kill over 100, including 43 children, triggering the first direct (overtly intentional) US military strikes against Syrian forces  ... heavy stuff, ongoing investigation. How did the White House already find out the truth so quickly? They couldn't have. They just took the rebel-claims, which might have concealed a fairly well-planned terrorist false-flag massacre of their own captive civilians.
* Red Flags report: 138 CW incidents, 159 gathered question marks (up to early 2017)

* 2.B Syria Chlorine Allegations (March-??, 2016, emphasis on the first incident, March 16 - overview.
Mohammed al-Taleb, treated then dead

* Terrible Flaws in OPCW's Syria Chlorine Investigation (summarizes all below, adding on the idiocy of the chlorine barrel bombs  allegation and the possibility of on-site synthesis)
(3 proper sub-posts)
* 1 Why Chlorine?  If hundreds allegedly killed by Sarin didn't get rebels a NATO air force, why would they bother faking barely-deadly chlorine attacks? Here's why.
* 2 What Killed the Talebs? March 16: Rebels and allied medical activists said it was chlorine dropped by the government, but  the visuals suggest the children at least were killed instead with a drug overdose, assisted by medical negligence.
* 3 Where was Dr. Tennari? The main source for the apparently false chlorine claims of March 16 is the director of the hospital where the children died. By the video record, doesn't even know where he was that night. Or is this intentional dishonesty?

(and also April - May, 2014)
Syria Chlorine Allegations: 2014 Attacks Target IDPs

* February, 2017 HRW report assessed 
** The Baytounji Family

Something you have to wonder why noone has noticed it so far ... most chlorine deaths are chalked up to people just sitting there and dying in their homes ... but this makes no sense from a scientific perspective. Ooops. That makes these stories read more like (poorly-researched) fiction than like fact.

* 2.C Ghouta Massacre(s) {masterlist}
Victims assembled in Douma
Alleged: Sarin gas attack by rockets that killed over 1,400, allegedly - Damascus suburbs, August 21, 2013 - led to serious threats of US military attack.

Perhaps the best lead was discovered by an ACLOS ally in his own detailed study that established one batch of victims -in Kafr Batna - was almost surely gassed by rebels with carbon monoxide or hydrogen cyanide gas, in a rebel-held basement.  And one victim was executed by a cut throat in the morgue upstairs, after he survived, and in between propaganda videos blaming "Assad" for all of it. So a good guess is: "Assad" was responsible for none of it. See The Ghouta Massacre's Sarin Myth, Brightly Lit: Exploring Kafr Batna's... Rebel Gas Chambers? 

Other great leads along the same lines: 
* Visual Evidence that the victims were prisoners (of the rebels)
* Death Toll(s) and estimates - body recycling (interrelated, needs clarified)
* by district {masterlist} (12 districts considered in detail in 10 posts - victims from, died in, clinical signs, background and observations - 5 posts up, 5 pending, more overview pending. See Part 2 Jobar for a telling example)
* Zamalka district: medical and media staffs decimated? bizarre allegations considered
* The false-flag gassing of Alawite hostages seized from Latakia just days before... apparently didn't happen. See bottom of the post about them.
* Preceding events: quite troubling, in context: Was the Syria Chemical Weapons Probe "Torpedoed" by the West? (Yes! Re: March, 2013 Khan Al-Assal sarin attack, by rebels - written May 2013, with post-Ghouta incident notes added in 2016)

2.D The First Bodies Tossed Across Obama's Red Line
November 2012 to March, 2013, the first 43 people killed, on both sides, by Syrian CW attacks that now come under critical review, in 4 parts.And following the last of those ...
the Syria Chemical Weapons Probe was "Torpedoed" by the West  - check my May, 2013 prediction at the end of that.

3) Mass prison torture defector photos allegation
Fail Ceasar: Exposing the Anti-Syria Photo Propaganda 
This has been prominent recently, and is now well-covered - detailed and explosive report forthcoming.

4) UN-SARC Convoy Attack {masterlist}
signs torn off by Russian bombs?
This hasn't remained a central issue, but it is of some importance in context, and fairly well exposed. September 19, 2016: a truck convoy carrying medical aid is attacked, with perhaps everyone killed and most aid destroyed, allegedly by Russian or Syrian bombing. But they had powerful disincentives (the attack derailed a Russia-backed plan to widen the fight against Jabhat al-Nusra), and local Islamist rebels in turn had the real motive (to kill that cease-fire and keep their JaN allies protected). The supposed proof of a Russia-Syria attack apparently does not exist, and many signs say it could very well be the terrorists with the motive - and/or perhaps a sympathetic air force  - that carried out this false-flag attack.

5 Houla Massacre {masterlist}  
2014 report, best evidence
(Taldou, al-Houla, Homs, May 25, 2012) Alleged: 108 Sunnis killed, including 49 children, by army shelling and home invasions by Alawite Shabiha militia.
Instead, it seems "rebels" or "terrorists" did it, just after they took over all the town's security posts. This was the last part of Houla the rebels didn't hold yet. Check and see, they finally took Taldou too, and it happened on May 25, 2012. And despite rebels trying not to show that happening, carefully analysis of the few videos of the day they did release, shows rebels taking over on that day.
The witnesses who correctly describe the battle for the Houla Massacre say the victors killed Sunnis who converted to Shi'ism, Sunnis who supported the "Alawite regime," and - in a nearby town, killed by other rebels - Alawite civilians.

6 Al-Bayda and Baniyas Massacres, May 2013
Victims near the mosque, opp. photo
Alleged: Assad's Alawite Shabiha militias massacre Sunnis for no other reason in two Sunni-populated towns of an Alawite-majority province, in an almost universally accepted plan of ethnic-sectarian cleansing.
But surprise, the terrorists whose agenda is furthered by mayhem in every province of Syria - it seems - actually caused this mayhem as well. 
* Syria's al-Bayda-Baniyas Massacres and "Targeting Specific Communities" They killed a controversial, outspoken government loyalist Imam and dozens of his family, comprising at least half of all victims (counts are very complicated with this one, ranging from 70 to 250+) This seems to be the main target. Sunni, but no longer on the wrong side.
* Bayan Jalloul, Martyr for Truth? In the next massacre, the alleged Alawite militias did kill an alleged opposition activist and her family. The story tries to counter the one above, but it's bizarre and falls apart. Note: this time the 200 dead seems less debatable, but could well include laundered Alawite victims from the city, and maybe lots of them, depending.

40 male alleged attack victims gathered
by about the attack time (see here)
7 Douma Market Attack {Masterlist} with sub-posts - and/or see one month investigation review

August 16, 2015: an alleged government fighter jet missile attack on 3 crowded public farmer's markets - 550 wounded, 112-125 or more killed, Syrian government universally blamed, no proof there was a jet involved, and serious questions about what really happened.

Why does the pattern of alleged jet strikes look more like the arc of a surface rocket attack?
arc of attack mapped to firing loc. (see here)
Why is the given time of attack so vague, and why were many or most victims dead before the apparent time of attack?
Why did the bombs kill almost exclusively men and older boys? Why were they all put in mass graves?  Why are the injury/death types different for different genders and ages? How did a jet missile pull one boy apart like he was drawn and quartered, then burn just his face? Why does the "world community" not seem to care about any of these questions?
* Douma Cages: Genocidal Display or Twisted Hoax?
* October 30 Douma Market Attack
* September 21 Aleppo market attack
* Ariha market, Aug. 3, "massacre of the jet"

Other/General Posts
Syria, General
* Shoukry al-Qouwatly Street Massacre, Or Perhaps Not?  A real WTF moment. (Aug 2016)

Syria Disaster Blame: "Assad" or the Regime Change Campaign?

* Responding to Eric Draitser's "Break the Silence" 

* White Helmets Covering up Genopcidal Massacres? 

Was the Syria Chemical Weapons Probe "Torpedoed" by the West? (Yes! Re: March, 2013 Khan Al-Assal sarin attack, by rebels - with post-Ghouta incident notes added in 2016)

* The "Assad Files," smuggled documents said to prove orders for mass torture, rigorously assessed, along with the key witness.

* Jaish al-Islam's way of protecting the Syrian people - on the Saudi-backed "Army of Islam" that was armed to threaten the capitol\, and their record of genocidal crimes against the people in their domain.

* Hussein Harmoush, FSA Defector Profile

* 2012, at the listing of JaN as a terrorist group - protest solidarity: we are all terrorists - a false visual summary (see right) of a real problem.

* Lessons for the Syria Situation: Old post, before any research on Syria, summarizing a few overall findings from Libya that it was thought might be relevant.

Strike on SAA in Deir Ezzour, Dec. 6, 2015
Specific Incidents (newest events first)
* Second ISIS conquest of Palmyra, late 2016: Did John Kerry Collude with ISIS?

* Crushed Women in Hama? September 2016

* Omran Daqneesh episode and related: "We Mustn't Turn Away" (August 21, 2016)

* Hayan Missile Massacre: August 12, 2016: 12 children and women killed by an air-strike ... or actually dumped here days after being executed, as the second part of a mass killing of a detained family. Jabhat al-Nusra (al-Qaeda terrorists) administer the area.

* Al-Quds Hospital blast: an Inside Job? East Aleppo, April 27, 2016. We can already see no air-strikes hit the building, but there explosions inside... and security video footage basically proves it was arranged from the inside.

* Coalition Airstrike on the Saeqa Army Base near Deir Ezzour, Dec. 6, 2015

* Ter Malla Massacre: al Qaeda or Russia/Syria Bombing?

* Comparing Terrorist Victory Massacres March-June, 2015 in Idlib province: ISIS Commits victory massacres, while Jabhat al-Nusra just finds them? June 10, 2015

* Braying to Assad  - later allegation based on an early 2014 event, unclear

* Laundering the Ma'an Massacre? Feb. 8-9, 2014

Harbinafsah, laundered?
* Syria: the Zanuba Massacre and the Harbinafsah Laundering Center? Hama province - tracing out what seems to be one method rebels have used to launder Alawite massacre victims as victims of regime shelling in a different town. (two oddly-anonymized child examples at right)

* Latakia Massacres, August 2013 (overview and links to 4 sub-posts)
** FSA-ISIS Teamwork in the Latakia Massacres? (August, 2013)
* The Hostages

* Ma'an Massacre, 2012: Did the Rebel Offensive Falter?
* Hama: Hasraya Checkpoint Abuse Video
* Hama: Mawas Family Massacre

* Daraya Massacre August 24-26, 2012, Damascus suburbs, claims of several hundred innocents killed as the army re-conquered a rebel-held suburb of Damascus. But it seems many were rebel fighters killed in that battle, and many others were civilian hostages held by rebels. Early post summarizing initial ACLOS research.

* Killing a Fireman in Syria, mid-2012, area unknown (Aleppo?)

* Re-Considering the case of Hamza Al-Khatib, Deraa, April/May, 2011

Refuting Reports (some repeated from above)
* MSF, on hospital bombings
* Amnesty Int'l on Sednaya prison mass hanging
* UN, on attack on UN-SARC aid convoy
* OPCW, on chlorine attacks 
* HRW, on chlorine attacks
* SNHR, on sectarian massacres ...
Districts of Homs city, ACLOS map
Homs Massacres Crash-Course
- Homs Massacres (April, 2011 through 2014 - app. 1,558 - 3,089 dead). Posted June 18 - a decent recap and partial summary of the massive ACLOS page and sub-pages, since expanded more.

- Reviewing "The Societys Holocaust" June 22, after noticing a new report by the opposition SNHR, publicized on June 19. This one one was about sectarian massacres nationwide, but wound up half of them were in Homs. Check out their coverage of the Aqrab Massacre ... of 6 Sunnis. From there, largely as linked at the review, a bunch of massacres in the Homs orbit I missed before, from the SNHR report - considered in posts here, and then added to the ACLOS project.

homes burning after Tasnin massacre
This all took just over a week, finished before July, listed in event order:
- Massacre of Fertilizer Plant Workers of May 31, 2012
- Joseyeh bus massacre June 12, 2012
- Qalat al-Hosn Massacre, June 2012 June  28
- Second Shammas Massacre Aug. 11/12, 2012
- Tasnin Massacre, Jan 5-6, 2013
- Mshierfa bus massacre Jan. 6, 2013
- Mallouk family massacre, May 17/18, 2013
- Sukhna Massacre, July 2013 (and follow-up in Adra, in December)


  1. Tuesday, December 20 was reportedly the "deadliest day of the nine-month [Syrian] uprising "with the "organized massacre" of a "mass defection" of army deserters widely reported by the international press in Idlib, northern Syria. Claiming that areas of Syria were now "exposed to large-scale genocide", the SNC lamented the "250 fallen heroes during a 48-hour period", citing figures provided by the Syrian Observatory for Human Rights. [54] Quoting the same source, the Guardian reported that the Syrian army was:
    ... hunt[ing] down deserters after troops ... killed close to 150 men who had fled their base". A picture has emerged ... of a mass defection ... that went badly wrong ... with loyalist forces positioned to mow down large numbers of defectors as they fled a military base. Those who managed to escape were later hunted down in hideouts in nearby mountains, multiple sources have reported. The Syrian Observatory for Human Rights estimated that 100 deserters were besieged, then killed or wounded. Regular troops allegedly also hunted down residents who had given shelter to the deserters. [55]
    The Guardian's live blog-quoted AVAAZ, the citizen political advocacy/public relations group, which "claimed 269 people had been killed in the clashes", and cited AVAAZ's precise breakdown of casualties: "163 armed revolutionaries, 97 government troops and 9 civilians". [56] They noted that AVAAZ "provided nothing to corroborate the claim".

    The Washington Post reported only that they had spoken to "an activist with the rights group AVAAZ [who] said he had spoken to local activists and medical groups who put the death toll in that area Tuesday at 269". [57]

    A day after initial reports of the massacre of fleeing deserters, however, the story had changed. On December 23, the Telegraph reported:
    At first they were said to be army deserters attempting to break into Turkey to join the FSA [Free Syrian Army], but they are now said to be unarmed civilians and activists attempting to escape the army's attempts to bring the province back under control. They were surrounded by troops and tanks and gunned down until there were no survivors, according to reports. [58]
    The New York Times had, on December 21, reported that the "massacre", citing the Syrian Observatory of Human Rights, was of "unarmed civilians and activists, with no armed military defectors among them, the rights groups said".

    It quoted the head of the Observatory who described it as "an organized massacre" and said his account corroborated a Kfar Owaid witness' account: "The security forces had lists of names of those who organized massive anti-regime protests ... the troops then opened fire with tanks, rockets and heavy machine guns [and], bombs filled with nails to increase the number of casualties. [59]

    The LA Times quoted an activist it had spoken to via satellite connection who, from his position "sheltering in the woods" commented: "The word 'massacre' seems like too small a word to describe what happened." Meanwhile, the Syrian government reported that on December 19 and 20, it had killed "tens" of members of "armed terrorist gangs" in both Homs and Idlib, and had arrested many wanted individuals. [60]

    The truth of these two "deadly" days will probably never be known - the figures cited above (between 10-163 armed insurgents, 9-111 unarmed civilians and 0-97 government forces) differ so significantly in both numbers reported killed and who they were, that the "truth" is impossible to establish.


    1. Source article, a buried gem perhaps, thanks.

      Should be included on ACLOS page for Jisr al-Shughour massacre,... unless it's there already.

    2. There's a related/nearby/similar massacre + other events tangled with that - it deserves more coverage here or anywhere, but covered some in the Rob Ford post, also links to ACLOS page (mainly CE's work, not mine).

    3. I knew that wasn't JaS (JUNE 2011), but Jabal Zawiya - never got its own page though, just a section on the JaS massacre talk page.

  2. In relation to an earlier purported "massacre" in Homs, a Stratfor investigation found "no signs of a massacre", concluding that "opposition forces have an interest in portraying an impending massacre, hoping to mimic the conditions that propelled a foreign military intervention in Libya". [61]

    Nevertheless, the "massacre" of December 19-20 in Idlib was reported as fact, and was etched into the narrative of Assad's "killing machine".

    Both the recent UN Human Rights Commissioner's report and a recent data blog report [62] on reported deaths in "Syria's bloody uprising" by the Guardian (published December 13) - two examples of attempts to establish the truth about numbers killed in the Syrian conflict - rely almost exclusively on opposition-provided data: interviews with 233 alleged "army defectors" in the case of the UN report, and on reports from the Syrian Human Rights Observatory, the LCCs and al-Jazeera in the case of the Guardian's data blog.

    The Guardian reports a total of 1,414.5 people (sic) killed - including 144 Syrian security personnel - between January and November 21, 2011. Based solely on press reports, the report contains a number of basic inaccuracies (eg sources not matching numbers killed with places cited in original sources): their total includes 23 Syrians killed by the Israeli army in June on the Golan Heights; 25 people reported "wounded" are included in total figures for those killed, as are many people reported shot.

    The report makes no reference to any killings of armed insurgents during the entire 10-month period - all victims are "protesters", "civilians" or "people" - apart from the 144 security personnel.

    Seventy percent of the report's data sources are from the Syrian Observatory for Human Rights, the LCCs and "activists"; 38% of press reports are from al-Jazeera, 3% from Amnesty International and 1.5% from official Syrian sources.

    In response to the UN Commissioner's report, Syria's ambassador to the UN commented: "How could defectors give positive testimonies on the Syrian government? Of course they will give negative testimonies against the Syrian government. They are defectors."

    In the effort to inflate figures of casualties, the public relations-activist group AVAAZ has consistently outstripped even the UN. AVAAZ has publicly stated it is involved in "smuggling activists ... out of the country", running "secret safe houses to shelter ... top activists from regime thugs" and that one "AVAAZ citizen journalist" "discover[ed] a mass grave". [63]

    It states proudly that the BBC and CNN have said that AVAAZ data amounts to some 30% of their news coverage of Syria. The Guardian reported AVAAZ's latest claim to have "evidence" of killings of some 6,200 people (including security forces and including 400 children), claiming 617 of whom died under torture [64] - their justification to have verified each single death with confirmation by three people, "including a relative and a cleric who handled the body" is improbable in the extreme.

  3. Tuesday, December 20th, 2011

    Inherent Bias in Syrian Data?
    The problem with information that originates from opposition groups is that there is a clear interest in disseminating “beneficial” data and underplaying “damaging” statistics. And that dynamic applies to the government too – which is why we take Syrian regime pronouncements with a grain of salt.
    You don’t see the Syrian opposition taking an active role in publicizing the slaughter of rank-and-file soldiers, for instance – except to claim these forces are being shot for deserting the army. Twitter is abuzz right now with news that more than 70 of today’s 100+ dead are “deserters.”
    Nor do you hear about the numbers of pro-regime civilians killed by the armed opposition – some of them allegedly while “demonstrating” in support of the Syrian regime.
    Now, this does not mean that the Syrian opposition lies outright to gain sympathy and foreign support – mostly because the “opposition” is not homogenous and comes in different shapes, sizes and flavors.
    But Strafor clearly questions the intent of some of these groups based on very recent evidence of disinformation campaigns:

  4. The killing of one brigadier-general and his children in April last year in Homs illustrates how near impossible it is, particularly during sectarian conflict, to verify even one killing - in this case, a man and his children:
    The general, believed to be Abdu Tallawi, was killed with his children and nephew while passing through an agitated neighborhood. There are two accounts of what happened to him and his family, and they differ about the victim's sect.

    Regime loyalists say that he was killed by takfiris - hardline Islamists who accuse other Muslims of apostasy - because he belonged to the Alawite sect. The protesters insist that he is a member of the Tallawi family from Homs and that he was killed by security forces to accuse the opposition and destroy their reputation. Some even claim that he was shot because he refused to fire at protesters.

    The third account is ignored due to the extreme polarization of opinions in the city [Homs]. The brigadier-general was killed because he was in a military vehicle, even though he had his kids with him. Whoever killed him was not concerned with his sect but with directing a blow to the regime, thus provoking an even harsher crackdown, which, in turn, would drag the protest movement into a cycle of violence with the state. [65]


    1. More from the same - Counterpunch isn't even the original source:
      Aisling Byrne is Projects Co-ordinator with Conflicts Forum and is based in Beirut. This article was first published in Asia Times.

  5. In the UK, the similarly neo-con Henry Jackson Society (which "supports the maintenance of a strong military, by the United States, the countries of the European Union and other democratic powers, armed with expeditionary capabilities with a global reach" and which believes that "only modern liberal democratic states are truly legitimate") is similarly pushing the agenda for regime change in Syria [47].

    This is in partnership with Syrian opposition figures including Ausama Monajed, [48] a former leader of the Syrian exile group, the Movement for Justice & Development, linked to the Muslim Brotherhood, which was funded by the US State Department from 2006, as we know from WikiLeaks.

    Monajed, a member of the SNC, currently directs a public relations firm [49] recently established in London and incidentally was the first to use the term "genocide" in relation to events in Syria in a recent SNC press release. [50]

    December 20 , 2011 by Michael Weiss Preconditions for intervention



  6. 26 July 2011

    It says it has compiled the names of 2,918 people who have been seized by regime but whose whereabouts are unknown and whose arrest has not been acknowledged.

    Avaaz will launch a website on Thursday that profiles some of those missing, providing the person's name, age, job, where they lived and details of their disappearance. It claims the number of "disappeared" is increasing significantly each day in Syria.

    The Guardian will have a full report on the campaign tomorrow.

    Early this year we have looked at the roles of citizen journalists from Syria.
    One was Khaled Abu Salah who faked and uploaded many videos of Syrian government atrocities, one day playing nearly dead while playing very well and enraged just few days later.  The other fake journalist was one "Danny" who presented his fake videos with Anderson Cooper on CNN.

    Both of these fake journalists who produced fake videos of alleged atrocities seemed to be sponsored and/or trained by Avaaz, a somewhat mysterious para-government organization (PGO). Both citizen journalists were involved with Avaaz smuggling "western" reporters into Syria. At one time Khaled Abu Salah was in a video with the "wounded" western journalist Edith Bouviers who Avaaz had smuggled into and later out of Syria.

    These guys have already shown that they are willing to blow up pipelines only to explain that "the Syrian government did it". They have used explosives to make videos of how "Assad bombs the people". They put bandages on a little healthy kid to show how on AlJazeerah how "Assad wounds the children". The purpose of these fakes was to influence "western" media coverage of the war on Syria. What else are they willing to fake for that purpose?


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